Adult onset diabetes in twins

Physiological plasticity enables homeostasis to be maintained in biological systems, but when such allostasis fails, then disease can develop. Type 1 diabetes is no longer viewed as a disease confined to children, with a significant proportion, maybe the majority, presenting in adulthood. Such cases masquerade as type 2 diabetes and their identification has clinical utility. Nevertheless, in this study, autoimmunity had a limited effect on the overall risk of adults developing diabetes. Epidemics in the 19th century were, in the main, due to infectious diseases; diabetes was different. More precisely, the latter were invariably rich and fat.
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Learn the Genetics of Diabetes

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Concordance rate for type II diabetes mellitus in monozygotic twins: actuarial analysis

You've probably wondered how you developed diabetes. You may worry that your children will develop it, too. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes have different causes, but there are two factors that are important in both. You inherit a predisposition to the disease, then something in your environment triggers it. One proof of this is identical twins. Identical twins have identical genes.
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Concordance for type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in male twins

To determine the concordance rate for Type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in monozygotic twin pairs, initially ascertained discordant for diabetes, we carried out a prospective study on 44 non-diabetic subjects, each of whom had a sibling twin with diabetes 21 men, 23 women, median age 55 years, interquartile range The subjects were referred as discordant for Type II diabetes. These subjects underwent an OGTT at time of referral and periodically thereafter. The mean follow-up was 8 years range years and data were collected until January The percentage of twins who developed Type II diabetes was assessed by standard actuarial life-table methods and the pairwise concordance rate, that is the proportion of concordant pairs over the sum of concordant and discordant pairs, was calculated.
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We studied the cumulative incidence, concordance rate and heritability for diabetes mellitus in a nationwide cohort of 13, Finnish twin pairs of the same sex. The twins were born before and both co-twins were alive in Data on diabetes were derived through computerized record linkage from death certificates, the National Hospital Discharge Register and the National Drug Register. Records were reviewed in order to assign a diagnostic category to the diabetic patients identified.
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